Oncolytic virus immunotherapy is rapidly gaining interest in the field of immunotherapy against cancer. The minimal toxicity upon treatment and the dual activity of direct oncolysis and immune activation make therapy with oncolytic viruses (OVs) an interesting treatment modality. The safety and efficacy of several OVs have been assessed in clinical trials and, so far, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved one OV. Unfortunately, most treatments with OVs have shown suboptimal responses in clinical trials, while they appeared more promising in preclinical studies, with tumours reducing after immune cell influx. In several clinical trials with OVs, parameters such as virus replication, virus-specific antibodies, systemic immune responses, immune cell influx into tumours and tumour-specific antibodies have been studied as predictors or correlates of therapy efficacy. In this review, these studies are summarized to improve our understanding of the determinants of the efficacy of OV therapies in humans and to provide insights for future developments in the viro-immunotherapy treatment field.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Clinical parameters, Oncolytic viruses, Viro-immunotherapy
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2020.07.001, hdl.handle.net/1765/130369
Journal Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews
Citation
de Graaf, J.F, Huberts, M. (M.), Fouchier, R.A.M, & van den Hoogen, B.G. (2020). Determinants of the efficacy of viro-immunotherapy: A review. Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2020.07.001