Purpose: Current clinical guidelines recommend cystoscopy in patients who present with hematuria to rule out a bladder tumor. We evaluated whether our previously developed urine assay was able to triage patients with hematuria for cystoscopy in a large prospective cohort.

Materials and Methods: A urine sample was collected before cystoscopy and mutation/methylation status of 6 genes was determined on cellular DNA. The existing diagnostic model was validated on this cohort. Logistic regression was applied to investigate other potential variables. The primary end point was the model performance as indicated by the AUC. Secondary end points were sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value. Clinical usefulness was determined by the net benefit approach.

Results: In 838 patients biomarker status could be determined for all genes. Urothelial cancer was observed in 112 patients (98 of 457 in the gross and 14 of 381 in the microscopic hematuria group). Validation of the existing model resulted in an AUC of 0.93. Logistic regression analysis identified type of hematuria as a significant additional variable. Adding type of hematuria resulted in an AUC of 0.95 (96% sensitivity, 73% specificity, 99% negative predictive value). The assay identified all upper tract tumors not visible by cystoscopy (in 6). Net benefit analysis showed that the urine assay should be preferred over current clinical practice. Implementing the urine assay as a triage tool could lead to a 53% reduction in cystoscopies.

Conclusions: The urine assay detected urothelial cancer with a very high accuracy and can be used to triage patients presenting with hematuria for cystoscopy.

Additional Metadata
Keywords biomarkers, methylation, mutation, urinalysis, urinary bladder neoplasms
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1097/ju.0000000000000786, hdl.handle.net/1765/130597
Journal The Journal of Urology
Citation
van Kessel, K.E.M, de Jong, J.J, Ziel-van der Made, A.C.J, Roshani, H., Haensel, S.M, Wolterbeek, J.H., … Zwarthoff, E.C. (2020). A Urine Based Genomic Assay to Triage Patients with Hematuria for Cystoscopy. The Journal of Urology, 204(1), 50–56. doi:10.1097/ju.0000000000000786