The effects of elevated arterial stiffness on cardiovascular outcomes are widely studied, whereas the relation to noncardiovascular outcomes relevant to older persons, such as the effect on bones and muscles, is less well established. Arterial stiffness, bone demineralization, and muscle loss are all age-related processes with common risk factors, however, whether these are just parallel age-related alterations or whether these processes share common pathways is not yet understood. In this review, we outline previous literature using different assessments of arterial stiffness in various populations across the world to produce a comprehensive overview. Although there are many studies showing an association between arterial stiffness and loss of bone and muscle, the majority are cross-sectional and there is limited longitudinal evidence to justify causal conclusions. We also give an in-depth review of hypotheses and possible mechanisms which may underlie these associations including hormone dysregulation, impaired glucose metabolism, and inflammation. This narrative review highlights the associations between vessels, bones, and muscles with aging, offering insights into possible shared pathways.

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Journal Hypertension
Tap, L, Kirkham, F.A., Mattace Raso, F.U.S, Joly, L., Rajkumar, C, & Benetos, A. (2020). Unraveling the Links Underlying Arterial Stiffness, Bone Demineralization, and Muscle Loss. Hypertension, 76(3), 629–639. doi:10.1161/hypertensionaha.120.15184