Purpose: Adjuvant accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) results in low local recurrence risks. However, the survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy APBI for low-risk breast cancer might partially be offset by the risk of radiation-induced lung cancer. Reducing the lung dose mitigates this risk, but this could result in higher doses to the ipsilateral breast. Different external beam APBI techniques are equally conformal and homogenous, but the intermediate to low dose distribution differs. Thus, the risk of toxicity is different. The purpose of this study is to quantify the trade-off between secondary lung cancer risk and breast dose in treatment planning and to compare an optimal coplanar and non-coplanar technique. Methods: A total of 440 APBI treatment plans were generated using automated treatment planning for a coplanar VMAT beam-setup and a non-coplanar robotic stereotactic radiotherapy beam-setup. This enabled an unbiased comparison of two times 11 Pareto-optimal plans for 20 patients, gradually shifting priority from maximum lung sparing to maximum ipsilateral breast sparing. The excess absolute risks of developing lung cancer and breast fibrosis were calculated using the Schneider model for lung cancer and the Avanzo model for breast fibrosis. Results: Prioritizing lung sparing reduced the mean lung dose from 2.2 Gy to as low as 0.3 Gy for the non-coplanar technique and from 1.9 Gy to 0.4 Gy for the coplanar technique, corresponding to a 7- and 4-fold median reduction of secondary lung cancer risk, respectively, compared to prioritizing breast sparing. The increase in breast dose resulted in a negligible 0.4% increase in fibrosis risk. The use of non-coplanar beams resulted in lower secondary cancer and fibrosis risks (p < 0.001). Lung sparing also reduced the mean heart dose for both techniques. Conclusions: The risk of secondary lung cancer of external beam APBI can be dramatically reduced by prioritizing lung sparing during treatment planning. The associated increase in breast dose did not lead to a relevant increase in fibrosis risk. The use of non-coplanar beams systematically resulted in the lowest risks of secondary lung cancer and fibrosis. Prioritizing lung sparing during treatment planning could increase the overall survival of early-stage breast cancer patients by reducing mortality due to secondary lung cancer and cardiovascular toxicity.

Additional Metadata
Keywords breast cancer, radiotherapy techniques, accelerated partial breast irradiation, plan optimization, secondary lung cancer
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01445, hdl.handle.net/1765/130663
Journal Frontiers in Oncology
Citation
Hoekstra, N., Habraken, S., Swaak-Kragten, A., Breedveld, S, Pignol, J.P., & Hoogeman, M.S. (2020). Reducing the Risk of Secondary Lung Cancer in Treatment Planning of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation. Frontiers in Oncology, 10. doi:10.3389/fonc.2020.01445