Aging is associated with a decrease in body and brain function and with a decline in insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. The observed associations between alterations in insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and cognitive functioning and Mild Cognitive Impairment suggest that altered insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling may accompany Alzheimer’s disease or is involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent animal research has suggested a possible association between insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele, a genetic predisposition to Alzheimer’s disease. It is therefore hypothesized that a reduction in insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling may moderate the vulnerability to Alzheimer’s disease of human Apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers. We address the impact of age-related decline of insulin-like growth factor 1 levels on physical and brain function in healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease and discuss the links between insulin-like growth factor 1 and the Apolipoprotein E ε4 polymorphism. Furthermore, we discuss lifestyle interventions that may increase insulin-like growth factor 1 serum levels, including physical activity and adherence to a protein rich diet and the possible benefits to the physical fitness and cognitive functioning of the aging population.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Insulin-like growth factor, Alzheimer’s disease, ApoE-ε4 allele, physical activity, diet, aging.
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2020.11, hdl.handle.net/1765/130733
Journal Journal of prevention of Alzheimer's disease
Citation
Galle, S.A., Geraedts, I.K., Deijen, J.B., Milders, M.V., & Drent, M.L. (2019). The Interrelationship between Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1, Apolipoprotein E ε4, Lifestyle Factors, and the Aging Body and Brain. Journal of prevention of Alzheimer's disease, 7(4), 265–273. doi:10.14283/jpad.2020.11