Over the past two decades since the introduction of the Milan criteria, the field of transplant oncology has undergone a rapid development with a rising proportion of liver transplantations being performed for oncological indications. For many patients with liver tumours, transplantation represents the only chance for cure. However, many challenges remain, such as the adequate patient selection, management of post-transplant recurrence and refinement of neoadjuvant treatment protocols. This review provides an overview of the current state of the art of liver transplantation for oncological indications such as hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, colorectal liver metastasis and metastatic neuroendocrine tumours. We also summarize the ongoing research and explore future trends. Clinical trials are currently studying new diagnostic modalities, innovative pharmacological treatments, novel surgical techniques, downstaging regimens and new indications for liver transplantation. These emerging results will continue to shape the field of transplant oncology and provide us with the necessary tools to better select, treat and follow patients with liver tumours qualifying for liver transplantation.

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Keywords cholangiocarcinoma, colorectal liver metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation, neuroendocrine liver metastasis, transplant oncology
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14621, hdl.handle.net/1765/130820
Journal Liver International
Moeckli, B., Ivanics, T., Claasen, M., Toso, C., & Sapisochin, G. (2020). Recent developments and ongoing trials in transplant oncology. Liver International, 40(10), 2326–2344. doi:10.1111/liv.14621