Background: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of the 2 calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), tacrolimus (TAC) and cyclosporin A, has resulted in improvements in the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation. As a result of TDM, acute rejection (AR) rates and treatment-related toxicities have been reduced. Irrespective, AR and toxicity still occur in patients who have undergone transplantation, showing blood CNI concentrations within the therapeutic range. Moreover, the AR rate is no longer decreasing. Hence, smarter TDM approaches are necessary. Because CNIs exert their action inside T lymphocytes, intracellular CNIs may be a promising candidate for improving therapeutic outcomes. The intracellular CNI concentration may be more directly related to the drug effect and has been favorably compared with the standard, whole-blood TDM for TAC in liver transplant recipients. However, measuring intracellular CNIs concentrations is not without pitfalls at both the preanalytical and analytical stages, and standardization seems essential in this area. To date, there are no guidelines for the TDM of intracellular CNI concentrations. Methods: Under the auspices of the International Association of TDM and Clinical Toxicology and its Immunosuppressive Drug committees, a group of leading investigators in this field have shared experiences and have presented preanalytical and analytical recommendations for measuring intracellular CNI concentrations

Additional Metadata
Keywords tacrolimus, cyclosporin A, pharmacokinetics, transplantation, intracellular
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0000000000000780, hdl.handle.net/1765/130832
Journal Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Citation
Lemâitre, F, Vethe, N.T., DʼAvolio, A., Tron, C., Robertsen, I., Winter, B., … Wallemacq, P. (2020). Measuring Intracellular Concentrations of Calcineurin Inhibitors: Expert Consensus from the International Association of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Toxicology Expert Panel. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 42(5), 665–670. doi:10.1097/FTD.0000000000000780