Background and aims: The impact of endothelial shear stress (ESS) on vessel remodeling in vessels implanted with bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) as compared to metallic drug-eluting stent (DES) remains elusive. The aim of this study was to determine whether the relationship between ESS and remodeling patterns differs in BRS from those seen in metallic DES at 3-year follow-up. Methods: In the ABSORB II randomized trial, lesions were investigated by serial coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Three-dimensional reconstructions of coronary arteries post-procedure and at 3 years were performed. ESS was quantified using non-Newtonian steady flow simulation. IVUS cross-sections in device segment were matched using identical landmarks. Results: Paired ESS calculations post-procedure and at 3 years were feasible in 57 lesions in 56 patients. Postprocedure, median ESS at frame level was higher in BRS than in DES, with marginal statistical significance (0.97 ± 0.48 vs. 0.75 ± 0.39 Pa, p = 0.063). In the BRS arm, vessel area and lumen area showed larger increases in the highest tercile of median ESS post-procedure as compared to the lowest tercile. In contrast, in DES, no significant relationship between median ESS post-procedure and remodeling was observed. In multivariate analysis, smaller vessel area, larger lumen area, higher plaque burden post-procedure, and higher median ESS post-procedure were independently associated with expansive remodeling in matched frames. Only in BRS, younger age was an additional significant predictor of expansive remodeling. Conclusions: In a subset of lesions with large plaque burden, shear stress could be associated with expansive remodeling and late lumen enlargement in BRS, while ESS had no impact on vessel dimension in metallic DES.

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Department of Surgery