Background. Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV) causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Patients with HFRS have an activated coagulation system with increased risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of the study was to determine whether circulating extracellular vesicle tissue factor (EVTF) activity levels associates with DIC and VTE (grouped as intravascular coagulation) in HFRS patients. Methods. Longitudinal samples were collected from 88 HFRS patients. Patients were stratified into groups of those with intravascular coagulation (n = 27) and those who did not (n = 61). We measured levels of circulating EVTF activity, fibrinogen, activated partial prothrombin time, D-dimer, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), and platelets. Results. Plasma EVTF activity was transiently increased during HFRS. Levels of EVTF activity were significantly associated with plasma tPA and PAI-1, suggesting that endothelial cells could be a potential source. Patients with intravascular coagulation had significantly higher peak EVTF activity levels compared with those who did not, even after adjustment for sex and age. The peak EVTF activity value predicting intravascular coagulation was 0.51 ng/L with 63% sensitivity and 61% specificity with area under the curve = 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.51–0.76) and P = .046. Conclusions. Plasma EVTF activity during HFRS is associated with intravascular coagulation.

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The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Department of Internal Medicine