BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether soluble frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4) concentration in the first trimester of pregnancy is individually, or in combination with Leptin, Chemerin and/or Adiponectin, associated with the development of gestational diabetes (GDM). METHODS: In a nested case-control study, 50 women with GDM who spontaneously conceived and delivered a live-born infant were matched with a total of 100 uncomplicated singleton control pregnancies based on body mass index (± 2 kg/m2), gestational age at sampling (exact day) and maternal age (± 2 years). In serum samples, obtained between 70-90 days gestational age, sFRP4, Chemerin, Leptin and Adiponectin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Statistical comparisons were performed using univariate and multi-variate logistic regression analysis after logarithmic transformation of the concentrations. Discrimination of the models was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: First trimester sFRP4 concentrations were significantly increased in GDM cases (2.04 vs 1.93 ng/ml; p<0.05), just as Chemerin (3.19 vs 3.15 ng/ml; p<0.05) and Leptin (1.44 vs 1.32 ng/ml; p<0.01). Adiponectin concentrations were significantly decreased (2.83 vs 2.94 ng/ml; p<0.01) in GDM cases. Further analysis only showed a weak, though significant, correlation of sFRP4 with Chemerin (R2 = 0.124; p<0.001) and Leptin (R2 = 0.145; p<0.001), and Chemerin with Leptin (R2 = 0.282; p<0.001) in the control group. In a multivariate logistic regression model of these four markers, only Adiponectin showed to be significantly associated with GDM (odds ratio 0.12, 95%CI 0.02-0.68). The AUC of this model was 0.699 (95%CI 0.605-0.793). CONCLUSION: In the first trimester of pregnancy, a multi-marker model with sFRP4, Leptin, Chemerin and Adiponectin is associated with the development of GDM. Therefore, this panel seems to be an interesting candidate to further evaluate for prediction of GDM in a prospective study.,
Department of Gynaecology & Obstetrics

Schuitemaker, J.H.N. (Joost H N), Beernink, R.H.J. (Rik H J), Franx, A., Cremers, T.I.F.H. (Thomas I F H), & Koster, M. (2020). First trimester secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 4 and other adipokine serum concentrations in women developing gestational diabetes mellitus. PLoS ONE, 15(11). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0242423