Background: The association between obesity and lung cancer (LC) remains poorly understood. However, other indices of obesity on the basis of body shape instead of body size have not been examined yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between different indices of body size and body shape and the risk of LC. In particular, this study examined the association between A Body Shape Index, a more precise indicator of abdominal fat than traditional anthropometric measures, and the risk of LC. Methods: In the prospective cohort the Rotterdam Study, we analysed data of 9,689 participants. LC diagnoses were based on medical records and anthropometric measurements were assessed at baseline. Cox-regression analyses with corresponding Hazard Ratios were used to examine the association between the anthropometric measurements and the risk of LC with adjustment for potential confounders. Potential non-linear associations were explored with cubic splines using the Likelihood ratio (LR) test. Results: During follow-up, 319 participants developed LC. Body mass Index (BMI) was inversely associated with the risk of lung cancer (HR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91–0.97) and persisted after excluding lung cancer cases during the first 10 years of follow-up. There was evidence for a non-linear association between BMI and the risk of lung cancer (0,04, df = 1), which indicated that the inverse association between BMI and lung cancer was mainly present in non-obese participants. Waist circumference (WC) (HR 1.03 95% CI: 1.01–1.05), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) (HR 1.23 95% CI: 1.09–1.38) and ABSI (A Body Shape Index) (HR 1.17 95% CI: 1.05–1.30) were positively and linearly associated with the risk of lung cancer. Conclusions: Body shape rather than body size may be an important risk indicator of LC. Future research should focus on the role of visceral fat and the risk of LC as well as the underlying mechanisms.

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Frontiers in Oncology
Department of Epidemiology

Ardesch, F.H. (F. H.), Ruiter, R., Mulder, M., Lahousse, L., Stricker, B., & Kiefte-de Jong, J. (2020). The Obesity Paradox in Lung Cancer: Associations With Body Size Versus Body Shape. Frontiers in Oncology, 10. doi:10.3389/fonc.2020.591110