Purpose of review The last decades, anesthesia has become safer, partly due to developments in monitoring. Advanced monitoring of children under anesthesia is challenging, due to lack of evidence, validity and size constraints. Most measured parameters are proxies for end organ function, in which an anesthesiologist is actually interested. Ideally, monitoring should be continuous, noninvasive and accurate. This present review summarizes the current literature on noninvasive monitoring in noncardiac pediatric anesthesia.

Recent findings For cardiac output (CO) monitoring, bolus thermodilution is still considered the gold standard. New noninvasive techniques based on bioimpedance and pulse contour analysis are promising, but require more refining in accuracy of CO values in children. Near-infrared spectroscopy is most commonly used in cardiac surgery despite there being no consensus on safety margins. Its place in noncardiac anesthesia has yet to be determined. Transcutaneous measurements of blood gases are used mainly in the neonatal intensive care unit, and is finding its way to the pediatric operation theatre. Especially CO2 measurements are accurate and useful.

Summary New techniques are available to assess a child's hemodynamic and respiratory status while under anesthesia. These new monitors can be used as complementary tools together with standard monitoring in children, to further improve perioperative safety.

doi.org/10.1097/aco.0000000000000927, hdl.handle.net/1765/132014
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery

van Wijk, J.J, Weber, F, Stolker, R.J, & Staals, L.M. (2020). Current state of noninvasive, continuous monitoring modalities in pediatric anesthesiology. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, 33(6), 781–787. doi:10.1097/aco.0000000000000927