Pneumonia is an acute pulmonary infection associated with high mortality and an immense financial burden on healthcare systems. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen capable of inducing S. aureus pneumonia (SAP), with some lineages also showing multidrug resistance. Given the high level of antibiotic resistance, much research has been focused on targeting S. aureus virulence factors, including toxins and biofilm-associated proteins, in an attempt to develop effective SAP therapeutics. Despite several promising leads, many hurdles still remain for S. aureus vaccine research. Here, we review the state-of-the-art SAP therapeutics, highlight their pitfalls, and discuss alternative approaches of potential significance and future perspectives.

pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, therapeutics, virulence,

Vlaeminck, J. (Jelle), Raafat, D. (Dina), Surmann, K. (Kristin), Timbermont, L. (Leen), Normann, N. (Nicole), Sellman, B. (Bret), … Malhotra-Kumar, S. (Surbhi). (2020). Exploring Virulence Factors and Alternative Therapies against Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia. Toxins (Vol. 12). doi:10.3390/toxins12110721