Background Immune checkpoint inhibitors that target the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) receptor induce a response in only a subgroup of patients with metastatic melanoma. Previous research suggests that transforming growth factor beta signaling and a collagenrich peritumoral stroma (tumor fibrosis), may negatively interfere with the interaction between T cells and tumor cells and thereby contribute to resistance mechanisms by immune-exclusion, while increased tumor infiltration of M1-like macrophages enhances T cell activity. Hence, the current study aimed to assess the relationship between blood-based markers of collagen or vimentin turnover (reflecting M1 macrophage activity) and clinical outcome in patients with metastatic melanoma after PD-1 inhibition. Methods Patients with metastatic melanoma who were treated with anti-PD-1 monotherapy between May 2016 and March 2019 were included in a prospective observational study. N-terminal pro-peptide of type III collagen (PRO-C3) cross-linked N-terminal pro-peptides of type III collagen (PC3X), matrix metalloprotease (MMP)- degraded type III (C3M) and type IV collagen (C4M), granzyme B-degraded type IV collagen and citrullinated and MMP-degraded vimentin (VICM) were measured with immunoassays in serum before (n=107), and 6weeks after the first administration of immunotherapy (n=94). The association between biomarker levels and overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed. Results Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified high baseline PRO-C3 (Q4) and PC3X (Q4) as independent variables of worse PFS (PRO-C3: HR=1.81, 95% CI=1.06 to 3.10, p=0.030 and PC3X: HR=1.86, 95% CI=1.09 to 3.18, p=0.023). High baseline PRO-C3 was also independently related to worse OS (HR=2.08, 95% CI=1.06 to 4.09, p=0.035), whereas a high C3M/PRO-C3 ratio was related to improved OS (HR=0.42, 95% CI=0.20 to 0.90, p=0.025). An increase in VICM (p<0.0001; in 56% of the patients) was observed after 6weeks of treatment, and an increase in VICM was independently associated with improved OS (HR=0.28, 95% CI=0.10 to 0.77, p=0.014). Conclusions Blood-based biomarkers reflecting excessive type III collagen turnover were associated with worse OS and PFS after PD-1 inhibition in metastatic melanoma. Moreover, an increase in VICM levels after 6weeks of treatment was associated with improved OS These findings suggest that type III collagen and vimentin turnover contribute to resistance/response mechanisms of PD-1 inhibitors and hold promise of assessing extracellular matrix-derived and stroma-derived components to predict immunotherapy response.,
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Department of Pharmacy

Hurkmans, D.P., Jensen, C., Koolen, S.L.W, Aerts, J.G.J.V, Karsdal, MA, Mathijssen, A.H.J, & Willumsen, N. (2020). Blood-based extracellular matrix biomarkers are correlated with clinical outcome after PD-1 inhibition in patients with metastatic melanoma. Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer, 8(2). doi:10.1136/jitc-2020-001193