Alemtuzumab is effective in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Serious adverse events have led to a renewed safety reassessment by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), leading to an approval under strict conditions. We report a RRMS patient experiencing diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) on day 4 of her first alemtuzumab cycle. In addition, we present an overview of the cases of alemtuzumab-induced DAH that were included in EMA's review procedure, additional well documented cases reported to the EMA and those cases reported in the literature. Combining these cases revealed striking similarities. Importantly, DAH was an early complication. All RRMS patients with known outcome showed complete recovery.

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Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
Department of Neurology

Drop, B.R.H. (B. R.H.), Zemel, D. (D.), Wokke, B.H.A. (B. H.A.), Van Oosten, B.W, Dik, S. (S.), Martins Jarnalo, C.O. (C. O.), … de Beukelaar, J.W.K. (2021). Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage as an early complication of alemtuzumab treatment: A case report of a multiple sclerosis patient and an overview of 14 cases. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 47. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102614