Second- and third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) play an important role in the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph + ALL). However, data on feasibility and efficacy of using these drugs for persisting or relapsed Ph + ALL after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) are scarce. Based on the EBMT Acute Leukemia Working Party registry, we evaluated the use of second-/third-generation TKI in 140 patients with Ph + ALL, suffering from measurable residual disease (MRD, n = 6), molecular relapse (MRel, n = 23), or hematological relapse (HRel, n = 111) following alloSCT. Treatment included dasatinib in 104, nilotinib in 18, or ponatinib in 18 patients. Forty-nine patients received TKI monotherapy, while 91 received additional treatment. Toxicity of second-/third-generation TKI post alloSCT was comparable to pretransplant use and could be managed with dose reduction or temporary discontinuation. Response rates were 71% (overall) and 61% (following TKI monotherapy). For the entire cohort, 2- and 5-year overall survival (OS) was 49% and 33%, respectively. OS was comparable among patients treated for persisting MRD/MRel and HRel. Among patients treated with TKI monotherapy, 2- and 5-year OS was 38% and 33%, respectively. The data underscore that second-/third-generation TKI are important compounds for the management of active Ph + ALL post alloSCT.,
Bone Marrow Transplantation

Hirschbühl, K. (Klaus), Labopin, M., Houhou, M. (Mohamed), Gabellier, L. (Ludovic), Labussière-Wallet, H. (Hélène), Lioure, B., … Mohty, M. (2020). Second- and third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors for Philadelphia-positive adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapsing post allogeneic stem cell transplantation—a registry study on behalf of the EBMT Acute Leukemia Working Party. Bone Marrow Transplantation. doi:10.1038/s41409-020-01173-x