The past several years have brought revelations and paradigm shifts in research on the cerebellum. Historically viewed as a simple sensorimotor controller with homogeneous architecture, the cerebellum is increasingly implicated in cognitive functions. It possesses an impressive diversity of molecular, cellular and circuit mechanisms, embedded in a dynamic, recurrent circuit architecture. Recent insights about the diversity and dynamism of the cerebellum provide a roadmap for the next decade of cerebellar research, challenging some old concepts, reinvigorating others and defining major new research directions.