Many workflows and tools that aim to increase the reproducibility and replicability of research findings have been suggested. In this review, we discuss the opportunities that these efforts offer for the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, in particular developmental neuroimaging. We focus on issues broadly related to statistical power and to flexibility and transparency in data analyses. Critical considerations relating to statistical power include challenges in recruitment and testing of young populations, how to increase the value of studies with small samples, and the opportunities and challenges related to working with large-scale datasets. Developmental studies involve challenges such as choices about age groupings, lifespan modelling, analyses of longitudinal changes, and data that can be processed and analyzed in a multitude of ways. Flexibility in data acquisition, analyses and description may thereby greatly impact results. We discuss methods for improving transparency in developmental neuroimaging, and how preregistration can improve methodological rigor. While outlining challenges and issues that may arise before, during, and after data collection, solutions and resources are highlighted aiding to overcome some of these. Since the number of useful tools and techniques is ever-growing, we highlight the fact that many practices can be implemented stepwise.

Cognitive neuroscience, Development, Open science, Preregistration, Sample size, Transparency,
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

Klapwijk, E.T. (Eduard T.), van den Bos, W. (Wouter), Tamnes, C.K. (Christian K.), Raschle, N.M. (Nora M.), & Mills, K.L. (Kathryn L.). (2021). Opportunities for increased reproducibility and replicability of developmental neuroimaging. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 47. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2020.100902