Background: Acidosis-induced kidney injury is mediated by the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, for which urinary renin is a potential marker. Therefore, we hypothesized that sodium bicarbonate supplementation reduces urinary renin excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and metabolic acidosis. Methods: Patients with CKD stage G4 and plasma bicarbonate 15–24 mmol/l were randomized to receive sodium bicarbonate (3 × 1000 mg/day, ~ 0.5 mEq/kg), sodium chloride (2 × 1,00 mg/day), or no treatment for 4 weeks (n = 15/arm). The effects on urinary renin excretion (primary outcome), other plasma and urine parameters of the renin-angiotensin system, endothelin-1, and proteinuria were analyzed. Results: Forty-five patients were included (62 ± 15 years, eGFR 21 ± 5 ml/min/1.73m2, plasma bicarbonate 21.7 ± 3.3 mmol/l). Sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased plasma bicarbonate (20.8 to 23.8 mmol/l) and reduced urinary ammonium excretion (15 to 8 mmol/day, both P < 0.05). Furthermore, a trend towards lower plasma aldosterone (291 to 204 ng/L, P = 0.07) and potassium (5.1 to 4.8 mmol/l, P = 0.06) was observed in patients receiving sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate did not significantly change the urinary excretion of renin, angiotensinogen, aldosterone, endothelin-1, albumin, or α1-microglobulin. Sodium chloride supplementation reduced plasma renin (166 to 122 ng/L), and increased the urinary excretions of angiotensinogen, albumin, and α1-microglobulin (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: Despite correction of acidosis and reduction in urinary ammonium excretion, sodium bicarbonate supplementation did not improve urinary markers of the renin-angiotensin system, endothelin-1, or proteinuria. Possible explanations include bicarbonate dose, short treatment time, or the inability of urinary renin to reflect intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activity. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

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Journal of Nephrology

Bovée, D.M, Roksnoer, L.C.W, van Kooten, C, Rotmans, J.I, Vogt, L, de Borst, M.H. (Martin H.), … Hoorn, E.J. (2020). Effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on the renin-angiotensin system in patients with chronic kidney disease and acidosis: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Nephrology. doi:10.1007/s40620-020-00944-5