Background: Modeling and simulation is increasingly used to study pediatric pharmacokinetics, but clinical implementation of age-appropriate doses lags behind. Therefore, we aimed to develop model-informed doses using published pharmacokinetic data and a decision framework to adjust dosing guidelines based on these doses, using piperacillin and amikacin in critically ill children as proof of concept. Methods: Piperacillin and amikacin pharmacokinetic models in critically ill children were extracted from literature. Concentration-time profiles were simulated for various dosing regimens for a virtual PICU patient dataset, including the current DPF dose and doses proposed in the studied publications. Probability of target attainment (PTA) was compared between the different dosing regimens. Next, updated dosing recommendations for the DPF were proposed, and evaluated using a new framework based on PK study quality and benefit-risk analysis of clinical implementation. Results: Three studies for piperacillin (critically ill children) and one for amikacin (critically ill pediatric burn patients) were included. Simulated concentration-time profiles were performed for a virtual dataset of 307 critically ill pediatric patients, age range 0.1–17.9 y. PTA for unbound piperacillin trough concentrations >16 mg/L was >90% only for continuous infusion regimens of 400 mg/kg/day vs. 9.7% for the current DPF dose (80 mg/kg/6 h, 30 min infusion). Amikacin PTA was >90% with 20 mg/kg/d, higher than the PTA of the DPF dose of 15 mg/kg/d (63.5%). Using our new decision framework, altered DPF doses were proposed for piperacillin (better PTA with loading dose plus continuous infusion), but not for amikacin (studied and target population were not comparable and risk for toxicity with higher dose). Conclusions: We show the feasibility to develop model-informed dosing guidelines for clinical implementation using existing pharmacokinetic data. This approach could complement literature and consensus-based dosing guidelines for off-label drugs in the absence of stronger evidence to support pediatricians in daily practice.

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Frontiers in Pharmacology

Hartman, S.J.F. (Stan J. F.), Swaving, J.G.E. (Joost G. E.), van Beek, S.W. (Stijn W.), van Groen, B, de Hoop, M. (Marika), van der Zanden, T.M. (Tjitske M.), … de Wildt, S.N. (2020). A New Framework to Implement Model-Informed Dosing in Clinical Guidelines: Piperacillin and Amikacin as Proof of Concept. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11. doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.592204