Pediatric anesthesia is large part of anesthesia clinical practice. Children, parents and anesthesiologists fear anesthesia because of the risk of acute morbidity and mortality. Modern anesthesia in otherwise healthy children above 1 year of age in developed countries has become very safe due to recent advance in pharmacology, intensive education, and training as well as centralization of care. In contrast, anesthesia in these children in low-income countries is associated with a high risk of mortality due to lack of basic resources and adequate training of health care providers. Anesthesia for neonates and toddlers is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anesthesia-related (near) critical incidents occur in 5% of anesthetic procedures and are largely dependent on the skills and up-to-date knowledge of the whole perioperative team in the specific needs for children. An investment in continuous medical education of the perioperative staff is required and international standard operating protocols for common procedures and critical situations should be defined.

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Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology

de Graaff, J.C, Johansen, M.F. (Mathias Fuglsang), Hensgens, M. (Martinus), & Engelhardt, T. (2020). Best practice & research clinical anesthesiology: Safety and quality in perioperative anesthesia care. Update on safety in pediatric anesthesia. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology. doi:10.1016/j.bpa.2020.12.007