Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive soft tissue sarcomas with dismal prognosis. Pathological and genetic markers may predict more aggressive behavior in MPNSTs but have uncommonly been investigated, and few are used in daily practice. This study reviews the prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers and genetic alterations in MPNST. Methods: A systematic search was performed in PubMed and Embase databases according to the PRISMA guidelines. Search terms related to ‘MPNST’ and ‘prognostic’ were used. Studies investigating the association of immunohistochemical markers or genetic alterations with prognosis were included. Qualitative synthesis was performed on all studies. A distinction was made between univariable and multivariable associations. Results: Forty-six studies were included after full-text screening. Sixty-seven different immunohistochemical markers were investigated. Absence of S100 and H3K27me3 and high Ki67 and p53 staining was most commonly independently associated with worse survival and disease-free survival. Several genetic alterations were investigated as well with varying association to survival. TP53, CDK4, RASSF1A alterations were independently associated with worse survival, as well as changes in chromosomal length in Xp, 10q, and 16p. Conclusions: MPNSTs harbor complex and heterogeneous biology. Immunohistochemical markers and genetic alterations have variable prognostic value. Absence of S100 and H3K27me3 and increased Ki67 can be of prognostic value. Alterations in TP53 or increase in p53 staining may distinguish MPNSTs with worse outcomes. Genetic alterations and staining of other cell cycle regulatory and Ras pathway proteins may also help stratifying patients with worse outcomes. A combination of markers can increase the prognostic value.

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Frontiers in Oncology
Department of Surgery

Martin, E. (Enrico), Acem, I. (Ibtissam), Grunhagen, D. J., Bovée, J., & Verhoef, K. (2020). Prognostic Significance of Immunohistochemical Markers and Genetic Alterations in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Oncology, 10. doi:10.3389/fonc.2020.594069