Kidney is one of the most common organs affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after the respiratory and immune systems. Among the renal parenchymal components, the tubulointerstitial compartment is presumed to be the prime target of injury in COVID-19. The main mechanism of renal tubular damage by COVID-19 is considered to be indirect, i.e., cytokine-mediated injury. A proportion of infected individuals mount a strong inflammatory response to the virus by an exaggerated immune response of the body, namely cytokine storm. Sudden and massive release of cytokines may lead to serious systemic hyper-inflammation and renal tubular injury and inflammation resulting in acute renal failure. In addition, a number of cases of glomerulopathies, particularly collapsing glomerulopathy (CG) have been reported, predominantly in people of African ancestry, as a rare form of kidney involvement by SARS-CoV-2 that may originate from the background genetic susceptibility in this population complicated by the second hit of SARS-CoV-2 infection, either directly or indirectly. It is noteworthy that renal injury in COVID-19 could be severe in individuals of African origin due to the aforementioned genetic susceptibility, especially the presence of high-risk apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genotypes. Although the exact mechanism of kidney injury by SARS-CoV-2 is as yet unknown, multiple mechanisms are likely involved in renal damage caused by this virus. This review was aimed to summarize the salient points of pathogenesis of kidney injury, particularly glomerular injury in COVID-19 disease in the light of published data. A clear understanding of these is imperative for the proper management of these cases. For this review, a search was made of Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO and PubMed for finding English language articles related to COVID-19, kidney injury and glomerulopathy. From the information given in finally selected papers, the key aspects regarding glomerular involvement in COVID-19 were drawn out and are presented in this descriptive review.

Acute kidney injury, Acute renal failure, Acute renal impairment, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, Collapsing glomerulopathy, COVID-19, Cytokine storm, SARS-CoV-2,
Journal of Nephropathology
Department of Epidemiology

Pezeshgi, A. (Aiyoub), Mubarak, M. (Muhammed), Djamali, A. (Arjang), Mostafavi, L. (Leila), Moghadam-Kia, S. (Siamak), Alimohammadi, N. (Niloufar), … Pezeshgi, S. (Saharnaz). (2021). COVID-19-associated glomerulopathy and high-risk apol1 genotype; basis for a two-hit mechanism of injury? A narrative review on recent findings. Journal of Nephropathology, 10(2), 1–7. doi:10.34172/jnp.2021.11