Purpose: The POP-ART RT study aims to determine to what extent and how intra-fractional real-time respiratory motion management (RRMM) and plan adaptation for inter-fractional anatomical changes (ART), are used in clinical practice and to understand barriers to implementation. Here we report on part I: RRMM. Material and methods: A questionnaire was distributed worldwide to assess current clinical practice, wishes for expansion or new implementation and barriers to implementation. RRMM was defined as inspiration/expiration gating in free-breathing or breath-hold, or tracking where the target and the beam are continuously realigned. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 200 centres from 41 countries. RRMM was used by 68% of respondents (‘users’) for a median (range) of 2 (1–6) tumour sites. Eighty-one percent of users applied inspiration breath-hold in at least one tumour site (breast: 96%). External marker was used to guide RRMM by 61% of users. KV/MV imaging was frequently used for liver and pancreas (with fiducials) and for lung (with or without fiducials). Tracking was mainly performed on robotic linacs with hybrid internal-external monitoring. For breast and lung, approximately 75% of respondents used or wished to implement RRMM, which was lower for liver (44%) and pancreas (27%). Seventy-one percent of respondents wished to implement RRMM for a new tumour site. Main barriers were human/financial resources and capacity on the machine. Conclusion: Sixty-eight percent of respondents used RRMM and 71% wished to implement RRMM for a new tumour site. The main barriers to implementation were human/financial resources and capacity on treatment machines

Intra-fractional motion, Gating, Tumour tracking, Breath hold, Real-time respiratory motion managemen
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.06.018, hdl.handle.net/1765/133574
Radiotherapy & Oncology
Department of Radiation Oncology

Anastasi, G., Bertholet, J., Poulsen, P., Roggen, T., Garibaldi, C, Tilly, N., … Aznar, MC. (2020). Patterns of practice for adaptive and real-time radiation therapy (POP-ART RT) part I: Intra-fraction breathing motion management. Radiotherapy & Oncology, 153, 79–87. doi:10.1016/j.radonc.2020.06.018