Background: The early-onset sepsis (EOS) calculator was developed and validated in a setting with routine-based group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening. Purpose: The study aimed to evaluate the extent of influence exerted by risk-based GBS screening on management recommendations by the EOS calculator. Methods: All newborns with a gestational age greater than 35 weeks were screened for EOS risk factors in a Dutch regional teaching hospital using a risk-based GBS screening strategy. We calculated the EOS risk at birth and stratified the infants into the following 3 risk levels with corresponding management recommendations: low, <0.65; intermediate, 0.65–1.54; and high, >1.54 per 1000 live newborns. Thereafter, we recalculated the EOS risk and recommendation for the newborn infants without available maternal GBS screening results at birth. Results: In one year, 1,877 eligible births occurred; of them, 206 infants were included. Maternal GBS status was available for 28 of 206 infants (14%) at birth, while a definitive GBS status was later available for 162 of 206 infants (79%). Median EOS risk was slightly lower after definitive GBS status was determined (0.41 vs. 0.46 per 1,000 live births, P=0.004). In 199 of 206 newborn infants (97%), the EOS calculator recommendation remained unchanged after the GBS results unavailable at birth were updated to definitive GBS status. Use of GBS status at birth versus definitive GBS status did not result in the withholding of antibiotic treatment of the newborn infants included in this study. Conclusion: Risk-based GBS screening is compatible with EOS calculator recommendations. Larger studies are needed to develop the best strategy for combining GBS screening and EOS calculator recommendations.

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Korean Journal of Pediatrics

Achten, N.B., Dorigo-Zetsma, J. W., van Rossum, A., Oostenbrink, R., & Plötz, F.B. (2020). Risk-based maternal group B Streptococcus screening strategy is compatible with the implementation of neonatal early-onset sepsis calculator. Korean Journal of Pediatrics, 63(10), 406–410. doi:10.3345/cep.2020.00094