Around two-thirds of patients with small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours are present with a metastatic mesenteric mass. This mass is known to cause intestinal complications, however, little is known on its development over time in the era of targeted therapy. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study to assess the growth and response to therapy. We found that the growth of the mesenteric mass was detectable in 13.5% over a median time of 3.4 years and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy resulted in size reduction in only 3.8%. This site-specific static growth behavior is important to note when assessing disease progression and therapeutic options. Background: A metastatic mesenteric mass is a hallmark of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs). However, little is known on its development over time. Therefore, we conducted a study to assess the evolution of a SI-NET-associated mesenteric mass over time. Methods: Retrospectively, 530 patients with proven SI-NET were included. The presence and growth of a mesenteric mass was assessed using RECIST 1.1 criteria on every consecutive CT-scan until the end of follow-up or resection. Results: At baseline, a mesenteric mass was present in 64% of the patients, of whom 13.5% showed growth of the mesenteric mass with a median time to growth of 40 months. Male gender was the only independent predictor of growth (OR 2.67). Of the patients without a mesenteric mass at the first evaluation, 2.6% developed a pathological mesenteric mass. Treatment with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT; N = 132) resulted in an objective size reduction of the mesenteric mass in 3.8%. Conclusion: The metastatic mesenteric mass in SI-NETs has a static behavior over time. Therefore, site-specific growth behavior should be taken into account when selecting target lesions and assessing disease progression and therapeutic response. PRRT appears not to be effective for size reduction of the mesenteric mass.

CT scan, Mesenteric metastases, Neuroendocrine tumour, Progression, PRRT, Radiology, RECIST 1.1,
Erasmus MC Cancer Institute

Blažević, A, Brabander, T, Zandee, W.T, Hofland, J, Franssen, G, van Velthuysen, M.L.F, … de Herder, W.W. (2021). Evolution of the mesenteric mass in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours. Cancers, 13(3), 1–8. doi:10.3390/cancers13030443