Female Lynch syndrome (LS) carriers have an increased risk to develop endometrial and ovarian cancer. In the Netherlands, carriers are therefore advised annual gynecological surveillance and eventually, risk-reducing surgery. Global gynecological LS surveillance guidelines are scarce and based on limited evidence. These are, however, warranted to offer accurate surveillance. To provide more insight into surveillance outcomes, this study assessed outcomes of gynecological surveillance and risk-reducing surgery in 164 LS carriers diagnosed in our center, with a median follow-up of 5.6 years per carrier. Although most surveillance visits happened within an advised timeframe, we observed large variability in how gynecological surveillance visits were performed. This finding stresses the need for development of clear and evidence-based guidelines. Endometrial cancers identified at surveillance were all found in early stage, mostly symptomatic, questioning surveillance benefit. Large, prospective studies should assess to what extent current LS surveillance programs contribute to early detection of gynecological tumors. Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by pathogenic germline variants in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, predisposing female carriers for endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC). Since gynecological LS surveillance guidelines are based on little evidence, we assessed its outcomes. Data regarding gynecological tumors, surveillance, and (risk-reducing) surgery were collected from female LS carriers diagnosed in our center since 1993. Of 505 female carriers, 104 had a gynecological malignancy prior to genetic LS diagnosis. Of 264 carriers eligible for gynecological management, 164 carriers gave informed consent and had available surveillance data: 38 MLH1, 25 MSH2, 82 MSH6, and 19 PMS2 carriers (median follow-up 5.6 years). Surveillance intervals were within advised time in >80%. Transvaginal ultrasound, endometrial sampling, and CA125 measurements were performed in 76.8%, 35.9%, and 40.6%, respectively. Four symptomatic ECs, one symptomatic OC, and one asymptomatic EC were diagnosed. Endometrial hyperplasia was found in eight carriers, of whomthree were symptomatic. Risk-reducing surgery was performed in 73 (45.5%) carriers (median age 51 years), revealing two asymptomatic ECs. All ECs were diagnosed in FIGO I. Gynecological management in LS carriers varied largely, stressing the need for uniform, evidence-based guidelines. Most ECs presented early and symptomatically, questioning the surveillance benefit in its current form.

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doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030459, hdl.handle.net/1765/134290

Eikenboom, E.L. (Ellis L.), van Doorn, L., Dinjens, W., Dubbink, E. J., Geurts-Giele, I., Spaander, M., … Goverde, A. (2021). Gynecological surveillance and surgery outcomes in dutch lynch syndrome carriers. Cancers, 13(3), 1–16. doi:10.3390/cancers13030459