Objective: To advance the prediction of the neurocognitive development in MPS II patients by jointly analyzing MRI and neurocognitive data in mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) II patients. Methods: Cognitive ability scores (CAS) were obtained by neuropsychological testing. Cerebral MRIs were quantified using a disease-specific protocol. MRI sumscores were calculated for atrophy, white-matter abnormalities (WMA) and Virchow-Robin spaces (VRS). To distinguish between atrophy and hydrocephalus the Evans' index and the callosal angle (CA) were measured. A random effects repeated measurement model was used to correlate CAS with the three MRI sumscores. Results: MRI (n = 47) and CAS scores (n = 78) of 19 male patients were analyzed. Ten patients were classified as neuronopathic and nine as non-neuronopathic. Neuronopathic patients had normal cognitive development until age 3 years. Mental age plateaued between ages 3 and 6, and subsequently declined with loss of skills at a maximum developmental age of 4 years. MRIs of neuronopathic patients showed abnormal atrophy sumscores before CAS dropped below the threshold for intellectual disability (<70). White-matter abnormalities (WMA) and brain atrophy progressed. The calculated sumscores were inversely correlated with CAS (r = −.90 for atrophy and −.69 for WMA). This was not biased by the influence of hydrocephalus as shown by measurement of the Evans' and callosal angle. Changes over time in the Virchow-Robin spaces (VRS) on MRI were minimal. Conclusion: In our cohort, brain atrophy showed a stronger correlation to a decline in CAS when compared to WMA. Atrophy-scores were higher in young neuronopathic patients than in non-neuronopathic patients and atrophy was an important early sign for the development of the neuronopathic phenotype, especially when observed jointly with white-matter abnormalities.

hunter syndrome, lysosomal, MPS II, MRI, mucopolysaccharidosis, neuropsychological, phenotype
dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12342, hdl.handle.net/1765/134291
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Vollebregt, A.A.M, Ebbink, B.J, Rizopoulos, D, Leguin, M, Aarsen, F.K, Shapiro, E, … van den Hout, J.M.P. (2020). Can serial cerebral MRIs predict the neuronopathic phenotype of MPS II?. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. doi:10.1002/jimd.12342