Objectives: Clinically evident tenosynovitis can be seen in established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Imaging research has recently shown that tenosynovitis at small joints occurs in early RA, contributes to typical RA symptoms (including joint swelling) and is infrequent in healthy controls. Imaging-detectable tenosynovitis is often not recognisable at joint examination, hence its prevalence can therefore be underestimated. We hypothesised that if MRI-detectable tenosynovitis is a true RA feature, the sensitivity for RA is high, in both anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative RA, and lower in other diseases that are associated with enthesitis (such as spondyloarthritis (SpA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA)). So far, no large MRI study addressed these questions. Methods: Consecutive patients with early arthritis (n=1211) from one healthcare region underwent contrast-enhanced 1.5T MRI of hand and foot at diagnosis. MRIs were scored for synovitis and tenosynovitis by two readers blinded for clinical data. All included patients with ACPA-positive RA (n=250), ACPA-negative RA (n=282), PsA (n=88), peripheral SpA (n=24), reactive arthritis (n=30) and self-limiting undifferentiated arthritis (UA; n=76) were studied. Sensitivity was calculated. Results: The sensitivity of tenosynovitis in RA was 85%; 88% for ACPA-positive RA and 82% for and ACPA-negative RA (p=0.19). The sensitivity for RA was significantly higher than for PsA (65%; p=0.001), SpA (53%; p<0.001), reactive arthritis (36%; p<0.001) and self-limiting UA (42%; p<0.001). The observed sensitivity of MRI synovitis was 91% in RA and ranged from 83% to 54% in other groups. Conclusions: MRI-detected tenosynovitis has a high sensitivity for early ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative RA. This supports that both juxta-articular (tenosynovitis) and intra-articular synovial involvement is characteristic of RA.

arthritis, magnetic resonance imaging, rheumatoid, tendinopathy
dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-219302, hdl.handle.net/1765/134795
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases: an international peer-reviewed journal for health professionals and researchers in the rheumatic diseases

Matthijssen, X.M.E. (Xanthe Marijn Edmée), Wouters, F. (Fenne), Sidhu, N. (Navkiran), Niemantsverdriet, E. (Ellis), & van der Helm-van Mil, A.H.M. (2021). Tenosynovitis has a high sensitivity for early ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative RA: a large cross-sectional MRI study. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases: an international peer-reviewed journal for health professionals and researchers in the rheumatic diseases. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-219302