Purpose: To improve image quality of multi-contrast imaging with the proposed Autocalibrated Parallel Imaging Reconstruction for Extended Multi-Contrast Imaging (APIR4EMC). Methods: APIR4EMC reconstructs multi-contrast images in an autocalibrated parallel imaging reconstruction framework by adding contrasts as virtual coils. Compensation of signal evolution along the echo train of different contrasts is performed to improve signal prediction for missing samples. As a proof of concept, we performed prospectively accelerated phantom and in-vivo brain acquisitions with T1, T1-fat saturated (Fatsat), T2, PD, and FLAIR contrasts. The k-space sampling patterns of these acquisitions were jointly optimized. Images were jointly reconstructed with the proposed APIR4EMC method as well as individually with GRAPPA. Root mean square error (RMSE) to fully sampled reference images and g-factor maps were computed for both methods in the phantom experiment. Visual evaluation was performed in the in-vivo experiment. Results: Compared to GRAPPA, APIR4EMC reduced artifacts and improved SNR of the reconstructed images in the phantom acquisitions. Quantitatively, APIR4EMC substantially reduced noise amplification (g-factor) as well as RMSE compared to GRAPPA. Signal evolution compensation reduced artifacts. In the in-vivo experiments, 1 mm3 isotropic 3D images with contrasts of T1, T1-Fatsat, T2, PD, and FLAIR were acquired in as little as 7.5 min with the acceleration factor of 9. Reconstruction quality was consistent with the phantom results. Conclusion: Compared to single contrast reconstruction with GRAPPA, APIR4EMC reduces artifacts and noise amplification in accelerated multi-contrast imaging.

Magnetic resonance imaging, Multi-contrast, Parallel imaging, Reconstruction, Virtual coil
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2021.02.002, hdl.handle.net/1765/135168
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Department of Medical Informatics

Zhang, C. (Chaoping), Klein, S, Cristobal-Huerta, A. (Alexandra), Hernandez-Tamames, J.A. (Juan A.), & Poot, D.H.J. (2021). APIR4EMC: Autocalibrated parallel imaging reconstruction for extended multi-contrast imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 78, 80–89. doi:10.1016/j.mri.2021.02.002