This research report, commissioned by the municipality of Rotterdam, summarizes the current scientific knowledge about the most important factors that increase or decrease the probability to become involved in criminal behaviour. Based on information from existing meta-analyses, systematic reviews and overview studies, we identify which risk-, promotive and protective factors have been found in robust empirical studies, and how strong they are associated with four different types of criminal behaviour: general offending, juvenile delinquency crime, cybercrime and involvement in organized crime. We distinguish factors connected to five domains: personal characteristics, the family, peers and groups, school/work and contextual/neighborhood factors.

Servaas, L.M, Weerman, F.M, & Fischer, T.F.C. (2021). Risico-, versterkende en beschermende factoren voor crimineel gedrag. Retrieved from