<p>The pretargeting strategy has recently emerged in order to overcome the limitations of direct targeting, mainly in the field of radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This strategy is directly dependent on chemical reactions, namely bioorthogonal reactions, which have been developed for their ability to occur under physiological conditions. The Staudinger ligation, the copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and the strain-promoted [3 + 2] azide–alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) were the first bioorthogonal reactions introduced in the literature. However, due to their incomplete biocompatibility and slow kinetics, the inverse-electron demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) reaction was advanced in 2008 by Blackman et al. as an optimal bioorthogonal reaction. The IEDDA is the fastest bioorthogonal reaction known so far. Its biocompatibility and ideal kinetics are very appealing for pretargeting applications. The use of a trans-cyclooctene (TCO) and a tetrazine (Tz) in the reaction encouraged researchers to study them deeply. It was found that both reagents are sensitive to acidic or basic conditions. Furthermore, TCO is photosensitive and can be isomerized to its cis-conformation via a radical catalyzed reaction. Unfortunately, the cis-conformer is significantly less reactive toward tetrazine than the trans-conformation. Therefore, extensive research has been carried out to optimize both click reagents and to employ the IEDDA bioorthogonal reaction in biomedical applications.</p>