<p>Variation in the efficacy and safety of central nervous system drugs between humans and rodents can be explained by physiological differences between species. An important factor could be P-glycoprotein (Pgp) activity in the blood–brain barrier (BBB), as BBB expression of this drug efflux transporter is reportedly lower in humans compared to mouse and rat and subject to an age-dependent increase. This might complicate animal to human extrapolation of brain drug disposition and toxicity, especially in children. In this study, the potential species-specific effect of BBB Pgp activity on brain drug exposure was investigated. An age-dependent brain PBPK model was used to predict cerebrospinal fluid and brain mass concentrations of Pgp substrate drugs. For digoxin, verapamil and quinidine, in vitro kinetic data on their transport by Pgp were derived from literature and used to scale to in vivo parameters. In addition, age-specific digoxin transport was simulated for children with a postnatal age between 25 and 81 days. BBB Pgp activity in the model was optimized using measured CSF data for the Pgp substrates ivermectin, indinavir, vincristine, docetaxel, paclitaxel, olanzapine and citalopram, as no useful in vitro data were available. Inclusion of Pgp activity in the model resulted in optimized predictions of their brain concentration. Total brain-to-plasma AUC values (Kp,brain) in the simulations without Pgp were divided by the Kp,brain values with Pgp. Kp ratios ranged from 1 to 45 for the substrates investigated. Comparison of human with rodent Kp,brain ratios indicated ≥ twofold lower values in human for digoxin, verapamil, indinavir, paclitaxel and citalopram and ≥ twofold higher values for vincristine. In conclusion, BBB Pgp activity appears species-specific. An age-dependent PBPK model-based approach could be useful to extrapolate animal data to human adult and paediatric predictions by taking into account species-specific and developmental BBB Pgp expression.</p>

doi.org/10.1007/s00204-021-03115-y, hdl.handle.net/1765/135860
Archives of Toxicology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Laurens F.M. Verscheijden, Jan B. Koenderink, S.N. (Saskia) de Wildt, & Frans G.M. Russel. (2021). Differences in P-glycoprotein activity in human and rodent blood–brain barrier assessed by mechanistic modelling. Archives of Toxicology, 95(9), 3015–3029. doi:10.1007/s00204-021-03115-y