<p>BK virus (BKV) infection after kidney transplantation can cause BKV nephropathy (BKVAN) resulting in graft dysfunction and allograft loss. The treatment for BKVAN is reduction of the immunosuppressive load which increases the risk of kidney transplant rejection. There is no biomarker to monitor BKV activity besides BK viral load. The value of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot (ELISPOT) assay as a tool to monitor the recipient's anti-BKV immune response after transplantation was investigated systematically. Electronic databases, including MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies of ELISPOT evaluating the immune response against BKV. BKV status was categorized as "active BKV infection" and as "resolving BKV infection". Random-effects model meta-analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic performance of the ELISPOT assay, after stratifying patients into groups based on positive and negative ELISPOT results. One-hundred twenty-seven articles were identified of which nine were included. Patients with negative ELISPOT had an increased risk of having active BKV replication (odds ratio of 71.9 (95%-CI 31.0–167.1). Pooled sensitivity was 0.95 (95%-CI 0.89–0.98) and specificity was 0.88 (95%-CI 0.78–0.94). The standardized mean difference of the number of IFN-γ producing cells between patients with active BKV infection compared with patients who had resolving BKV infection was -2.09 (95%-CI -2.50, -1.68). The ELISPOT assay is a useful tool for BKV risk assessment and in combination with BKV load may support clinicians in guiding immunosuppressive therapy in patients with BKV replication.</p>

doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2021.104848, hdl.handle.net/1765/136071
Journal of Clinical Virology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

S. (Suwasin) Udomkarnjananun, Stephen J. Kerr, M.I. (Marith) Francke, Yingyos Avihingsanon, N.M. (Nicole) van Besouw, C.C. (Carla) Baan, & D.A. (Dennis) Hesselink. (2021). A systematic review and meta-analysis of enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay for BK polyomavirus immune response monitoring after kidney transplantation. Journal of Clinical Virology, 140. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2021.104848