<p>Background: The incidence of hemostatic complications in pediatric patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is high. The optimal anticoagulation strategy in children undergoing ECMO is unknown. Objectives: To study the association between hemostatic complications, coagulation tests, and clinical parameters in pediatric patients undergoing ECMO and their effect on survival. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients undergoing centrifugal pump ECMO. Collected data included patient characteristics, risk factors, and coagulation test results. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression analysis for repeated measurements. Dependent variables were thrombosis and bleeding, independent variables were rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and antifactor-Xa assay (aXa) results, ECMO duration, age &lt;29 days, sepsis and surgery. Results: Seventy-three patients with 623 ECMO days were included. Cumulative incidences of thrombosis and bleeding were 43.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.0%-59.8%) and 25.4% (95% CI, 13.4%-39.3%), respectively. A lower maximum clot firmness of intrinsic ROTEM (INTEM; odds ratio [OR], 0.946; 95% CI, 0.920-0.969), extrinsic ROTEM (OR, 0.945; 95% CI, 0.912-0.973), and INTEM with heparinase (OR, 0.936; 95% CI, 0.896-0.968); higher activated partial thromboplastin time aPTT; OR, 1.020; 95% CI, 1.006-1.024) and age &lt;29 days (OR, 2.900; 95% CI, 1.282-6.694); surgery (OR, 4.426; 95% CI, 1.543-12.694); and longer ECMO duration (OR, 1.149; 95% CI, 1.022-1.292) significantly increased thrombotic risk. Surgery (OR, 2.698; 95% CI, 1.543-12.694) and age &lt;29 days (OR 2.242, 95% CI 1.282–6.694) were significantly associated with major bleeding. Patients with hemostatic complications had significantly decreased survival to hospital discharge (P =.009). Conclusion: The results of this study help elucidate the role of ROTEM, aPTT, anti–factor Xa, and clinical risk factors in predicting hemostatic complications in pediatric patients undergoing ECMO.</p>

doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12553, hdl.handle.net/1765/136187
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam