<p>Purpose: Interest in implicit memory formation and unconscious auditory stimulus perception during general anesthesia has resurfaced as perioperative music has been reported to produce beneficial effects. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating explicit and implicit memory formation during general anesthesia and its effects on postoperative patient outcomes and recovery. Source: We performed a systematic literature search of Embase, Ovid Medline, and Cochrane Central from inception date until 15 October 2020. Eligible for inclusion were RCTs investigating intraoperative auditory stimulation in adult surgical patients under general anesthesia in which patients, healthcare staff, and outcome assessors were all blinded. We used random effects models for meta-analyses. This study adhered to the PRISMA guidelines and was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020178087). Principal findings: Fifty-three (4,200 patients) of 5,859 identified articles were included. There was evidence of implicit memory formation in seven out of 17 studies (41%) when assessed using perceptual priming tasks. Mixed results were observed on postoperative behavioural and motor response after intraoperative suggestions. Intraoperative music significantly reduced postoperative pain (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.1 to -0.57; P &lt; 0.001; I<sup>2</sup> = 0; n = 226) and opioid requirements (SMD, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.015; P = 0.039; I<sup>2</sup> = 36; n = 336), while positive therapeutic suggestions did not. Conclusion: The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis show that intraoperative auditory stimuli can be perceived and processed during clinically adequate, general anesthesia irrespective of surgical procedure severity, leading to implicit memory formation without explicit awareness. Intraoperative music can exert significant beneficial effects on postoperative pain and opioid requirements. Whether the employed intraoperative anesthesia regimen is of influence is not yet clear.</p>

doi.org/10.1007/s12630-021-02015-0, hdl.handle.net/1765/136190
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Riikka E. Mäkitie, Petra Henning, Yaming Jiu, Anders Kämpe, Konstantin Kogan, Alice Costantini, … Outi Mäkitie. (2021). An ARHGAP25 variant links aberrant Rac1 function to early-onset skeletal fragility. JBMR Plus, 5(7). doi:10.1002/jbm4.10509