<p>Background: Environmental noise pollution is regarded as a general stressor. Noise levels frequently exceed recommended noise levels by the World Health Organization in hospitals, especially in the operation room. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of noise pollution on patient outcome and performance by operation room staff. In addition, the perception and attitude toward playing music in the operation room, which can increase noise levels, were assessed as well. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search of the databases Embase, Medline Ovid, and Cochrane from date of database inception until October 16<sup>th</sup>, 2020 using the exhaustive literature search method was performed. Prospective studies evaluating the effect of noise on the patient, surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other operation room staff, or perception and attitude toward playing music in the operation room, were included. This systematic review adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines and was registered with PROSPERO (ID: 208282). Results: The literature search generated 4758 articles, and 22 prospective studies (3507 participants) were included. Three of the four studies that investigated the effect of noise on patient outcome reported a significant reduction of complication rate in surgical patients, when noise levels were lower. Six studies assessed the effect of noise in the operation room on the staff (1383 participants). Over half of the surveyed staff found noise levels to be a disturbing stressor and negatively impact performance. Although music increased decibel levels in the operation room, most surveyed staff was positively predisposed toward playing music during surgery, believing it to improve both individual and team performance. In general, music was not considered to be distracting or impairing communication. Conclusions: Higher noise levels seem to have a negative effect on patient outcome and adversely affect performance by members in the operation room. Further research is needed to assess whether this knowledge can benefit patient outcome and surgical performance. Notably, attitude of surgical team members toward music during surgery is generally regarded favorable.</p>

doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2021.01.038, hdl.handle.net/1765/136200
Journal of Surgical Research
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam