<p>Despite extensive study, the role of air pollution in gestational diabetes remains unclear, and there is limited evidence of the beneficial impact of residential greenness on metabolic dysfunction during pregnancy. We used data from mothers in the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project from 2003–2008. We obtained spatiotemporally resolved estimates of fine particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub> ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO<sub>2</sub> ) exposures in early pregnancy and estimated residential greenness using satellite-based Normal Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 100, 300 and 500 m buffers surrounding the mother’s residence. We applied logistic regression models to evaluate associations between each of the three exposures of interest and (a) glucose intolerance and (b) abnormal lipid levels. We found limited evidence of associations between increases in PM<sub>2.5</sub> and NO<sub>2</sub> exposures and the metabolic outcomes. Though not statistically significant, high PM<sub>2.5</sub> exposure (≥25 µg/m<sup>3</sup> ) was associated with increased odds of glucose intolerance (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.82, 1.63) and high cholesterol (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.44). High NO<sub>2</sub> exposure (≥39.8 µg/m<sup>3</sup> ) was inversely associated with odds of high triglycerides (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.45, 1.08). Whereas NDVI was not associated with glucose intolerance, odds of high triglycerides were increased, although the results were highly imprecise. Results were unchanged when the air pollutant variables were included in the regression models. Given the equivocal findings in our study, additional investigations are needed to assess effects of air pollution and residential greenness on metabolic dysfunction during pregnancy.</p>

doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179354, hdl.handle.net/1765/136283
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam