<p>Loss of function of adenosine deaminase acting on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-1 (ADAR1) causes the severe autoinflammatory disease Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). ADAR1 converts adenosines into inosines within dsRNA. This process called A-to-I editing masks self-dsRNA from detection by the antiviral dsRNA sensor MDA5. ADAR1 binds to dsRNA in both the canonical A-form and the poorly defined Z conformation (Z-RNA). Mutations in the Z-RNA-binding Zα domain of ADAR1 are common in patients with AGS. How loss of ADAR1/Z-RNA interaction contributes to disease development is unknown. We demonstrate that abrogated binding of ADAR1 to Z-RNA leads to reduced A-to-I editing of dsRNA structures formed by base pairing of inversely oriented short interspersed nuclear elements. Preventing ADAR1 binding to Z-RNA triggers an MDA5/MAVS-mediated type I interferon response and leads to the development of lethal autoinflammation in mice. This shows that the interaction between ADAR1 and Z-RNA restricts sensing of self-dsRNA and prevents AGS development.</p>

doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109500, hdl.handle.net/1765/136349
Cell Reports
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Richard de Reuver, Evelien Dierick, Bartosz Wiernicki, Katrien Staes, Leen Seys, Ellen De Meester, … Jonathan Maelfait. (2021). ADAR1 interaction with Z-RNA promotes editing of endogenous double-stranded RNA and prevents MDA5-dependent immune activation. Cell Reports, 36(6). doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109500