<p>Purpose: Immune dysregulation complications cause significant morbidity and mortality in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), but the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. While CVID is primarily considered a B-cell defect, resulting in the characteristic hypogammaglobulinemia, T-cells may also contribute to immune dysregulation complications. Here, we aim to further characterize T-cell activation and regulation in CVID with immune dysregulation (CVIDid). Methods: Flow cytometry was performed to investigate T-cell differentiation, activation and intracellular cytokine production, negative regulators of immune activation, regulatory T-cells (Treg), and homing markers in 12 healthy controls, 12 CVID patients with infections only (CVIDio), and 20 CVIDid patients. Results: Both CD4 + and CD8 + T-cells in CVIDid showed an increased activation profile (HLA-DR + , Ki67 + , IFNγ +) when compared to CVIDio, with concomitant upregulation of negative regulators of immune activation PD1, LAG3, CTLA4, and TIGIT. PD1 + and LAG3 + subpopulations contained equal or increased frequencies of cells with the capacity to produce IFNγ, Ki67, and/or GzmB. The expression of PD1 correlated with serum levels of CXCL9, 10, and 11. Treg frequencies were normal to high in CVIDid, but CVIDid Tregs had reduced CTLA-4 expression, especially on CD27 + effector Tregs. Increased migratory capacity to inflamed and mucosal tissue was also observed in CVIDid T-cells. Conclusion: CVIDid was characterized by chronic activation of peripheral T-cells with preserved inflammatory potential rather than functional exhaustion, and increased tissue migratory capacity. While Treg numbers were normal in CVIDid Tregs, low levels of CTLA-4 indicate possible Treg dysfunction. Combined studies of T-cell dysfunction and circulating inflammatory proteins may direct future treatment strategies.</p>

doi.org/10.1007/s10875-021-01084-6, hdl.handle.net/1765/136549
Journal of Clinical Immunology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam