<p>Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a highly prevalent endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, is the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. Objective: This proof-of-concept study evaluated clinical efficacy and safety of the neurokinin 3 (NK3) receptor antagonist fezolinetant in PCOS. Methods: This was a phase 2a, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study (EudraCT 2014-004409-34). The study was conducted at 5 European clinical centers. Women with PCOS participated in the study. Interventions included fezolinetant 60 or 180 mg/day or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was change in total testosterone. Gonadotropins, ovarian hormones, safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results: Seventy-three women were randomly assigned, and 64 participants completed the study. Adjusted mean (SE) changes in total testosterone from baseline to week 12 for fezolinetant 180 and 60 mg/day were-0.80 (0.13) and-0.39 (0.12) nmol/L vs-0.05 (0.10) nmol/L with placebo (P &lt;.001 and P &lt;.05, respectively). Adjusted mean (SE) changes from baseline in luteinizing hormone (LH) for fezolinetant 180 and 60 mg/d were-10.17 (1.28) and-8.21 (1.18) vs-3.16 (1.04) IU/L with placebo (P &lt;.001 and P =.002); corresponding changes in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were-1.46 (0.32) and-0.92 (0.30) vs-0.57 (0.26) IU/L (P =.03 and P =.38), underpinning a dose-dependent decrease in the LH-to-FSH ratio vs placebo (P &lt;.001). Circulating levels of progesterone and estradiol did not change significantly vs placebo (P &gt;.10). Fezolinetant was well tolerated. Conclusion: Fezolinetant had a sustained effect to suppress hyperandrogenism and reduce the LH-to-FSH ratio in women with PCOS.</p>

doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab320, hdl.handle.net/1765/136568
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Graeme L. Fraser, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, J.S.E. (Joop) Laven, Georg Griesinger, Axelle Pintiaux, Dirk Timmerman, … Steven Ramael. (2021). Randomized Controlled Trial of Neurokinin 3 Receptor Antagonist Fezolinetant for Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 106(9), E3519–E3532. doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab320