<p>Children show important developmental and maturational changes, which may contribute greatly to pharmacokinetic (PK) variability observed in pediatric patients. These PK alterations are further enhanced by disease-related, non-maturational factors. Specific to the intensive care setting, such factors include critical illness, inflammatory status, augmented renal clearance (ARC), as well as therapeutic interventions (e.g., extracorporeal organ support systems or whole-body hypothermia [WBH]). This narrative review illustrates the relevance of both maturational and non-maturational changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) applied to antibiotics. It hereby provides a focused assessment of the available literature on the impact of critical illness—in general, and in specific subpopulations (ARC, extracorporeal organ support systems, WBH)—on PK and potential underexposure in children and neonates. Overall, literature discussing antibiotic PK alterations in pediatric intensive care is scarce. Most studies describe antibiotics commonly monitored in clinical practice such as vancomycin and aminoglycosides. Because of the large PK variability, therapeutic drug monitoring, further extended to other antibiotics, and integration of model-informed precision dosing in clinical practice are suggested to optimise antibiotic dose and exposure in each newborn, infant, or child during intensive care.</p>

doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10101182, hdl.handle.net/1765/136711
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Matthias Gijsen, Dirk Vlasselaers, Isabel Spriet, & K.M. (Karel) Allegaert. (2021). Pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in pediatric intensive care. Antibiotics (Vol. 10). doi:10.3390/antibiotics10101182