<p>BACKGROUND: Prehospital care for traumatic brain injury (TBI) is important to prevent secondary brain injury. We aim to compare prehospital care systems within Europe and investigate the association of system characteristics with the stability of patients at hospital arrival. METHODS: We studied TBI patients who were transported to CENTER-TBI centers, a pan-European, prospective TBI cohort study, by emergency medical services between 2014 and 2017. The association of demographic factors, injury severity, situational factors, and interventions associated with on-scene time was assessed using linear regression. We used mixed effects models to investigate the case mix adjusted variation between countries in prehospital times and interventions. The case mix adjusted impact of on-scene time and interventions on hypoxia (oxygen saturation &lt;90%) and hypotension (systolic blood pressure &lt;100mmHg) at hospital arrival was analyzed with logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 3878 patients, the greatest driver of longer on-scene time was intubation (+8.3 min, 95% CI: 5.6-11.1). Secondary referral was associated with shorter on-scene time (-5.0 min 95% CI: -6.2- -3.8). Between countries, there was a large variation in response (range: 12-25 min), on-scene (range: 16-36 min) and travel time (range: 15-32 min) and in prehospital interventions. These variations were not explained by patient factors such as conscious level or severity of injury (expected OR between countries: 1.8 for intubation, 1.8 for IV fluids, 2.0 for helicopter). On-scene time was not associated with the regional EMS policy (p= 0.58). Hypotension and/or hypoxia were seen in 180 (6%) and 97 (3%) patients in the overall cohort and in 13% and 7% of patients with severe TBI (GCS &lt;8). The largest association with secondary insults at hospital arrival was with major extracranial injury: the OR was 3.6 (95% CI: 2.6-5.0) for hypotension and 4.4 (95% CI: 2.9-6.7) for hypoxia. DISCUSSION: Hypoxia and hypotension continue to occur in patients who suffer a TBI, and remain relatively common in severe TBI. Substantial variation in prehospital care exists for patients after TBI in Europe, which is only partially explained by patient factors.</p>

doi.org/10.1080/10903127.2020.1817210, hdl.handle.net/1765/136794
Prehospital emergency care : official journal of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the National Association of State EMS Directors
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

CENTER-TBI collaborators, B.Y. (Benjamin) Gravesteijn, C.A. (Charlie) Sewalt, Nino Stocchetti, Giuseppe Citerio, Ari Ercole, … Fiona E. Lecky. (2021). Prehospital Management of Traumatic Brain Injury across Europe. Prehospital emergency care : official journal of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the National Association of State EMS Directors, 25(5), 629–643. doi:10.1080/10903127.2020.1817210