<p>Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the primary form of liver cancer and a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Early detection remains the most effective strategy in HCC management. However, the spectrum of underlying liver diseases preceding HCC, its genetic complexity, and the lack of symptomatology in early stages challenge early detection. Regardless of underlying etiology, unresolved chronic inflammation is a common denominator in HCC. Hence, many inflammatory molecules, including cytokines, have been investigated as potential biomarkers to predict different stages of HCC. Soluble cytokines carry cell-signaling functions and are easy to detect in the bloodstream. However, its biomarkers’ role remains limited due to the dysregulation of immune parameters related to the primary liver process and their ability to differentiate carcinogenesis from the underlying disease. In this review, we discuss and provide insight on cytokines with clinical relevance for HCC differentiating those implicated in tumor formation, early detection, advanced disease, and response to therapy.</p>

doi.org/10.3390/cancers13194876, hdl.handle.net/1765/136883
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

N.A. (Noé) Rico Montanari, Chimaobi M. Anugwom, P.A. (Andre) Boonstra, & J.D. (Jose) Debes. (2021). The role of cytokines in the different stages of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancers (Vol. 13). doi:10.3390/cancers13194876