<p>Prognostic assessment in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is embedded deeply in clinical care. Considering the limitations of current prognostic indicators, there is increasing interest in understanding the role of new biomarkers, and in finding other prognostic indicators of long-term outcomes following TBI. New prognostic indicators may result in the development of more accurate prediction models that could be useful for both risk stratification and clinical decision making. We aimed to review methodological issues and provide tentative guidelines for prognostic research in TBI. Prognostic factor research focuses on the role of a specific patient or disease-related characteristic in relation to outcome. Typically, univariable relations of the prognostic factor are studied, followed by analyses adjusting for other variables related to the outcome. Following existing guidelines, we emphasize the importance of transparent reporting of patient and specimen characteristics, study design, clinical end-points, and statistical analysis. Prognostic model research considers combinations of predictors, with challenges for model specification, estimation, evaluation, validation, and presentation. We highlight modern approaches and opportunities related to missing values, exploration of non-linear effects, and assessing between-study heterogeneity. Prognostic research in TBI can be improved if key methodological principles are adhered to and when research is performed in collaboration among multiple centers to ensure generalizability.</p>

doi.org/10.1089/neu.2019.6708, hdl.handle.net/1765/136922
Journal of Neurotrauma
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

I.R.A. (Isabel) Retel Helmrich, H.F. (Hester) Lingsma, Alexis F. Turgeon, Jose Miguel Yamal, & E.W. (Ewout) Steyerberg. (2021). Prognostic Research in Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 38(18), 2502–2513. doi:10.1089/neu.2019.6708