<p>Objective: Early life is a critical window for adiposity programming. This study investigated whether fat mass percentage (FM%), fat mass index (FMI), abdominal fat, and fat-free mass (FFM) in early life track into childhood and whether there are sex differences and differences between infant feeding types. Methods: Detailed body composition was longitudinally measured by air-displacement plethysmography, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and abdominal ultrasound in 224 healthy, term-born children. Measurements were divided into tertiles. Odds ratios (OR) of remaining in the highest tertile of FM%, FMI, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, and FFM index (FFMI) were calculated from early life to age 4 years. Results: High FM% and FMI tracked from age 3 and 6 months to age 4 years (OR = 4.34 [p = 0.002] and OR = 6.54 [p &lt; 0.001]). High subcutaneous abdominal fat tracked from age 6 months to age 4 years (OR = 2.30 [p = 0.012]). High FFMI tracked from age 1, 3, and 6 months to age 4 years (OR = 4.16 [p = 0.005], 3.71 [p = 0.004], and 3.36 [p = 0.019]). In non-exclusively breastfed infants, high FM% tracked from early life to age 4 years, whereas this was not the case for exclusively breastfed infants. There was no tracking in visceral fat or sex differences. Conclusions: Infants with high FM%, FMI, subcutaneous abdominal fat, and FFMI in early life are likely to remain in the highest tertile at age 4 years. Exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months is potentially protective against having high FM% at age 4 years.</p>

doi.org/10.1002/oby.23271, hdl.handle.net/1765/137136
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

I.A.L.P. (Inge) van Beijsterveldt, K.S. (Kirsten) de Fluiter, LM (Laura) Breij, M (Manouk) van der Steen, & A.C.S. (Anita) Hokken - Koelega. (2021). Fat mass and fat-free mass track from infancy to childhood: New insights in body composition programming in early life. Obesity, 29(11), 1899–1906. doi:10.1002/oby.23271