<p>Purpose of Review: Fractures are frequently encountered in paediatric practice. Although recurrent fractures in children usually unveil a monogenic syndrome, paediatric fracture risk could be shaped by the individual genetic background influencing the acquisition of bone mineral density, and therefore, the skeletal fragility as shown in adults. Here, we examine paediatric fractures from the perspective of monogenic and complex trait genetics. Recent Findings: Large-scale genome-wide studies in children have identified ~44 genetic loci associated with fracture or bone traits whereas ~35 monogenic diseases characterized by paediatric fractures have been described. Summary: Genetic variation can predispose to paediatric fractures through monogenic risk variants with a large effect and polygenic risk involving many variants of small effects. Studying genetic factors influencing peak bone attainment might help in identifying individuals at higher risk of developing early-onset osteoporosis and discovering drug targets to be used as bone restorative pharmacotherapies to prevent, or even reverse, bone loss later in life.</p>

doi.org/10.1007/s11914-021-00680-0, hdl.handle.net/1765/137158
Current Osteoporosis Reports
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

S. (Samuel) Ghatan, Alice Costantini, R. (Ruolin) Li, C (Christiaan) de Bruin, N. M. Appelman-Dijkstra, E. M. Winter, … M.C. (Maria) Medina Gomez. (2021). The Polygenic and Monogenic Basis of Paediatric Fractures. Current Osteoporosis Reports (Vol. 19, pp. 481–493). doi:10.1007/s11914-021-00680-0