Type I iodothyronine deiodinase (D1) and type II iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) catalyze the activation of the prohormone T4 to the active hormone T3; type III iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the inactivation of T4 and T3. D3 is highly expressed in brain, placenta, pregnant uterus, and fetal tissues and plays an important role in regulating thyroid hormone bioavailability during fetal development. We examined the activity of the different deiodinases in human cell lines and investigated the regulation of D3 activity and mRNA expression in these cell lines, as well as its possible coexpression with neighboring genes Dlk1 and Dio3os, which may also be especially important during development. D1 activity and mRNA were only found in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells, and D2 activity was observed in none of the cell lines. D3 activity and mRNA was found in ECC-1 endometrium carcinoma cells, MCF-7 mammacarcinoma cells, WRL-68 embryonic liver cells, and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, but not in the HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cell line or in any choriocarcinoma or astrocytoma cell line. We demonstrated that the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate increased D3 activity 2- to 9-fold in ECC-1, MCF-7, WRL-68, and SH-SY5Y cells. Estradiol increased D3 activity 3-fold in ECC-1, but not in any other cells. Dexamethasone decreased D3 activity in WRL-68 cells only in the absence of fetal calf serum. Incubation with retinoids increased D3 activity 2- to 3-fold in ECC-1, WRL-68, and MCF-7 cells but decreased D3 activity in SH-SY5Y cells. D3 expression in the different cells was not affected by cAMP or thyroid hormone. Interestingly, D3 mRNA expression in the different cell lines strongly correlated with Dio3os mRNA expression and in a large set of neuroblastoma cell lines also with Dlk1 expression. In conclusion, we identified different human D3-expressing cell lines, in which the regulation of D3 expression is cell type-specific. Our data suggest that estradiol may be one of the factors contributing to the induction of D3 activity in the pregnant uterus and that in addition to gene-specific regulatory elements, more distant common regulatory elements also may be involved in the regulation of D3 expression.

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doi.org/10.1210/en.2006-0590, hdl.handle.net/1765/14083
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Kester, M., Kuiper, G., Versteeg, R., & Visser, T. (2006). Regulation of type III iodothyronine deiodinase expression in human cell lines. Endocrinology, 147(12), 5845–5854. doi:10.1210/en.2006-0590