CONTEXT: Low birth weight might increase risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 and metabolic syndrome (MS). GH has insulin-antagonistic properties. Therefore, long-term follow-up of GH-treated children born small for gestational age (SGA) is important. OBJECTIVE AND PATIENTS: The objective of the study was to evaluate insulin sensitivity (Si) and disposition index (DI), all components of the MS and IGF-I and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 levels in 37 previously GH-treated young SGA adults in comparison with 25 untreated short SGA controls. RESULTS: GH-treated subjects were 22.3 (1.7) yr old. Mean duration of GH treatment had been 7.3 (1.3) yr. Mean period after discontinuation was 6.5 (1.4) yr. Si and DI were comparable for GH-treated and untreated SGA subjects. Fasting glucose and insulin levels increased during GH treatment but recovered after discontinuation. Body mass index, waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and triglycerides were equivalent. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and cholesterol were significantly lower in GH-treated subjects. Thirty-two percent of untreated controls vs. none of the GH-treated subjects had an increased blood pressure. GH-induced rises in IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels had completely recovered after GH stop. CONCLUSION: At 6.5 yr after discontinuation of long-term GH treatment, Si, DI, fasting levels of glucose and insulin, body mass index, waist circumference, and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels were equivalent for GH-treated and untreated young SGA adults. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum cholesterol were even lower in GH-treated subjects. These data are reassuring because they suggest that long-term GH treatment does not increase the risk for diabetes mellitus type 2 and MS in young adults.

*Infant, Small for Gestational Age, Adolescent, Adult, Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, Child, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*etiology, Double-Blind Method, Female, Glucose/metabolism, Growth Hormone/*therapeutic use, Humans, Infant, Newborn, Insulin Resistance, Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3/blood, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis, Lipids/blood, Male, Metabolic Syndrome X/*etiology, Risk Factors, Waist-Hip Ratio,
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

van Dijk, M, Bannink, E.M.N, van Pareren, Y.K, Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S, & Mulder, P.G.H. (2007). Risk factors for diabetes mellitus type 2 and metabolic syndrome are comparable for previously growth hormone-treated young adults born small for gestational age (sga) and untreated short SGA controls. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92(1), 160–165. doi:10.1210/jc.2006-1073