Academic discussions in the Netherlands about the nature and ambiguity of white-collar and corporate crime have dragged on for years. Empirical research started relatively late. Studies that address explanations mostly focus on the criminology of the market or the corporation. Although major incidents of organizational crime stir punitiveness, most corporate law-breaking is dealt with by a strategy of regulatory enforcement based on promoting compliance and stimulating self-regulation. A typical Dutch manifestation of organizational crime is the high level of entanglement of business and public administration.

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Journal Crime and Justice: a review of research
van de Bunt, H.G, & Huisman, W. (2007). Organizational crime in the Netherlands. Crime and Justice: a review of research, 217–260. Retrieved from